Basics

Terminology

We define a resample as the result of a two-way split of a data set. For example, when bootstrapping, one part of the resample is a sample with replacement of the original data. The other part of the split contains the instances that were not contained in the bootstrap sample. Cross-validation is another type of resampling.

rset Objects Contain Many Resamples

The main class in the package (rset) is for a set or collection of resamples. In 10-fold cross-validation, the set would consist of the 10 different resamples of the original data.

Like modelr, the resamples are stored in data-frame-like tibble object. As a simple example, here is a small set of bootstraps of the mtcars data:

library(rsample)
set.seed(8584)
bt_resamples <- bootstraps(mtcars, times = 3)
bt_resamples
#> # Bootstrap sampling 
#> # A tibble: 3 x 2
#>   splits          id        
#>   <list>          <chr>     
#> 1 <split [32/14]> Bootstrap1
#> 2 <split [32/12]> Bootstrap2
#> 3 <split [32/14]> Bootstrap3

Individual Resamples are rsplit Objects

The resamples are stored in the splits column in an object that has class rsplit.

In this package we use the following terminology for the two partitions that comprise a resample:

(Aside: While some might use the term “training” and “testing” for these data sets, we avoid them since those labels often conflict with the data that result from an initial partition of the data that is typically done before resampling. The training/test split can be conducted using the initial_split function in this package.)

Let’s look at one of the rsplit objects

first_resample <- bt_resamples$splits[[1]]
first_resample
#> <32/14/32>

This indicates that there were 32 data points in the analysis set, 14 instances were in the assessment set, and that the original data contained 32 data points. These results can also be determined using the dim function on an rsplit object.

To obtain either of these data sets from an rsplit, the as.data.frame function can be used. By default, the analysis set is returned but the data option can be used to return the assessment data:

head(as.data.frame(first_resample))
#>                   mpg cyl  disp  hp drat   wt qsec vs am gear carb
#> Fiat 128         32.4   4  78.7  66 4.08 2.20 19.5  1  1    4    1
#> Toyota Corolla   33.9   4  71.1  65 4.22 1.83 19.9  1  1    4    1
#> Toyota Corolla.1 33.9   4  71.1  65 4.22 1.83 19.9  1  1    4    1
#> AMC Javelin      15.2   8 304.0 150 3.15 3.44 17.3  0  0    3    2
#> Valiant          18.1   6 225.0 105 2.76 3.46 20.2  1  0    3    1
#> Merc 450SLC      15.2   8 275.8 180 3.07 3.78 18.0  0  0    3    3
as.data.frame(first_resample, data = "assessment")
#>                     mpg cyl  disp  hp drat   wt qsec vs am gear carb
#> Mazda RX4 Wag      21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.88 17.0  0  1    4    4
#> Hornet 4 Drive     21.4   6 258.0 110 3.08 3.21 19.4  1  0    3    1
#> Merc 240D          24.4   4 146.7  62 3.69 3.19 20.0  1  0    4    2
#> Merc 230           22.8   4 140.8  95 3.92 3.15 22.9  1  0    4    2
#> Merc 280           19.2   6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3  1  0    4    4
#> Merc 280C          17.8   6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.9  1  0    4    4
#> Merc 450SE         16.4   8 275.8 180 3.07 4.07 17.4  0  0    3    3
#> Merc 450SL         17.3   8 275.8 180 3.07 3.73 17.6  0  0    3    3
#> Cadillac Fleetwood 10.4   8 472.0 205 2.93 5.25 18.0  0  0    3    4
#> Chrysler Imperial  14.7   8 440.0 230 3.23 5.34 17.4  0  0    3    4
#> Honda Civic        30.4   4  75.7  52 4.93 1.61 18.5  1  1    4    2
#> Fiat X1-9          27.3   4  79.0  66 4.08 1.94 18.9  1  1    4    1
#> Lotus Europa       30.4   4  95.1 113 3.77 1.51 16.9  1  1    5    2
#> Volvo 142E         21.4   4 121.0 109 4.11 2.78 18.6  1  1    4    2

Alternatively, you can use the shortcuts analysis(first_resample) and assessment(first_resample).